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Images live-update on the included tablet, providing instant data for verification and analysis with integrated software in the field under any daylight conditions. User-selected zenith and azimuthal divisions allow investigation of any canopy sectors desired, and the instrument’s light-weight design makes it convenient for canopy imaging in any location!
Figure: Grids for analyzing fish-eye images.
|Theory Of Operation|
Leaf Area Index (LAI) is defined as one sided leaf area divided by the total ground area. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) designates the spectral range of solar radiation (400-700 nm). By measuring PAR and LAI simultaneously, one is able to calculate LAI and canopy parameters using a variety of methodologies.
To calculate LAI, the CI-110 captures a 150° fisheye image of the canopy, which is divided into zenith and azimuthal divisions. Using the software included on the tablet computer, the user can include or exclude any zenith and azimuth division to focus on specific portions of the canopy for study.
The most practical method for non-destructive LAI measurement is the Gap Fraction Method. Gap Fraction indicates how much of the sky is visible from beneath the plant canopy. The greater the area of sky that is visible, the larger the gap fraction.
When using the CI-110, a value between 0 and 1 is assigned to estimate the Gap Fraction in a canopy—0 means that no sky is visible below the plant canopy whereas 1 means that the entire area is sky is visible, or there is no foliage coverage. Any fraction indicates partial foliage cover.
Images taken with the CI-110 are divided into sectors according to the user-selected number of zenith and azimuthal division. The fraction of the sky (solar beam transmission coefficient) that is visible in each sector is automatically analyzed by tallying the sky portion of the image pixels in that sector. Once all sectors are analyzed and the average solar beam transmission coefficients for each zenith division are computed, the hemispherical diffuse radiation transmission coefficient (the sky view factor), mean foliage inclination angles, and plant canopy extinction coefficients are instantaneously computed by CI-110's analysis software.
*Norman J.M. and Campbell, G.S. (1989) Canopy Structure. In: Plant Physiological Ecology, Field methods and instrumentation. (eds. R. W. Pearcy, . Ehleringer, H.A. Moorney and P.W. Rundel), Chapman & Hall, London and New York, pp. 301-325.
|Lens||Equidistant wide-angle lens|
|Image Resolution||768 × 494 pixels|
|Measuring Time||0.5 second|
|Fish-eye Lens Angle||150°|
|Operating Temperature||5 to 50°C|
|Probe Size||20 × 20mm|
|Probe and Arm Weight||500 g|
|PAR||24 PAR sensors, 10 mm spacing|
|How to use it|
Position the CI-110 under desired leaf canopy. The auto-leveling fisheye camera lens (150°) displays a live image of the canopy for accurate data collection. Once desired canopy image has been captured, software-driven analysis manipulates data as directed by the user, making manual image masking obsolete.
|In the Box|
The CI-110 Digital Plant Canopy Imager includes:
|CICI110-00||Digital Plant Canopy Imager Model CI-110|